Tuesday, 30 June 2020

Q. A 45-year-old single mother of three teenaged boys has metastatic breast cancer. Her parents live 750 miles away and have only been able to visit twice since her initial diagnosis 14 months ago. The progression of her disease has forced the client to consider high-dose chemotherapy. She is concerned about her children's welfare during the treatment. When assessing the client's present support systems, the nurse will be most concerned about the potential problems with:

A. Denial as a primary coping mechanism.
B. Support systems and coping strategies.
C. Decision-making abilities.
D. Transportation and money for the boys.

Correct Answer: B

Reason: The client's resources for coping with the emotional and practical needs of herself and her family need to be assessed because usual coping strategies and support systems are often inadequate in especially stressful situations. The nurse may be concerned with the client's use of denial, decision-making abilities, and ability to pay for transportation; however, the client's support systems will be of more importance in this situation.

Monday, 29 June 2020

Q. A nurse should monitor a client receiving lidocaine (Xylocaine) for toxicity. Which signs or symptoms in a client suggest lidocaine toxicity?

A. Nausea and vomiting
B. Pupillary changes
C. Confusion and restlessness
D. Hypertension



Correct Answer: C

Reason: Confusion and restlessness are signs of lidocaine toxicity. Nausea and vomiting may occur with oral administration of mexiletine (Mexitil) or tocainide (Tonocard) — other class IB drugs. Pupillary changes and hypertension aren't signs of lidocaine toxicity, although visual changes and hypotension may occur as adverse reactions to class IB drugs.

Saturday, 27 June 2020

Q. A primiparous client at 4 hours after a vaginal delivery and manual removal of the placenta voids for the first time. The nurse palpates the fundus, noting it to be 1 cm above the umbilicus, slightly firm, and deviated to the left side, and notes a moderate amount of lochia rubra. The nurse notifies the physician based on the interpretation that the assessment indicates which of the following?

A. Perineal lacerations.
B. Retained placental fragments.
C. Cervical lacerations.
D. Urine retention.

Correct Answer: B

Reason: At 4 hours postpartum, the fundus should be midline and at the level of the umbilicus. Whenever the placenta is manually removed after delivery, there is a possibility that all of the placenta has not been removed. Sometimes small pieces of the placenta are retained, a common cause of late postpartum hemorrhage. The client is exhibiting signs and symptoms associated with retained placental fragments. The client will continue to bleed until the fragments are expelled. Perineal and cervical lacerations are characterized by bright red bleeding and a firmly contracted fundus at the level that is expected. Urine retention is characterized by a full bladder, which can be observed by a bulge or fullness just above the symphysis pubis. Also, the client's fundus would be deviated to one side and boggy to the touch.

Friday, 26 June 2020

Q. Which finding indicates placental detachment?

A. An abrupt lengthening of the cord
B. A decrease in the number of contractions
C. Relaxation of the uterus
D. Decreased vaginal bleeding




Correct Answer: A

Reason: An abrupt lengthening of the cord, an increase (not a decrease) in the number of contractions, and an increase (not a decrease) in vaginal bleeding are all indications that the placenta has detached from the wall of the uterus. Relaxation of the uterus isn't an indication for detachment of the placenta. 

Thursday, 25 June 2020

Question Of The Day, Antepartum Period
Q. The primary health care provider orders intravenous magnesium sulfate for a primigravid client at 38 weeks' gestation diagnosed with severe preeclampsia. Which of the following medications should the nurse have readily available at the client's bedside?

A. Diazepam (Valium).
B. Hydralazine (Apresoline).
C. Calcium gluconate.
D. Phenytoin (Dilantin).

Correct Answer: C

Reason: The client receiving magnesium sulfate intravenously is at risk for possible toxicity. The antidote for magnesium sulfate toxicity is calcium gluconate, which should be readily available at the client's bedside. Diazepam (Valium), used to treat anxiety, usually is not given to pregnant women. Hydralazine (Apresoline) would be used to treat hypertension, and phenytoin (Dilantin) would be used to treat seizures.

Wednesday, 24 June 2020

Q. After a dose-response test, the client with an overdose of barbiturates receives pentobarbital sodium (Nembutal) at a nonintoxicating maintenance level for 2 days and at decreasing dosages thereafter. This regimen is effective in the client does not develop:

A. Psychosis.
B. Seizures.
C. Hypotension.
D. Hypothermia.

Correct Answer: B

Reason: Generalized seizures may occur on the second or third day of withdrawal from barbiturates. Without treatment, the seizures may be fatal. Psychosis is a possibility but is not fatal and will not be prevented by the pentobarbital sodium regimen. Orthostatic hypotension is possible but is unlikely to be fatal; it is also not treatable by the pentobarbital sodium regimen. Hyperthermia, rather than hypothermia, occurs during withdrawal.

Monday, 22 June 2020

Q. A nurse is evaluating a client's electrocardiogram (ECG). Which ECG change can result from amitriptyline (Elavil) therapy?

A. Presence of U waves
B. Depressed ST segment
C. Widening QT interval
D. Prolonged PR interval




Correct Answer: C

Reason: Amitriptyline therapy may cause a conduction delay, demonstrated by a widening QT interval on the ECG. U waves, a depressed ST segment, and a prolonged PR interval aren't typically induced by amitriptyline therapy.

Saturday, 20 June 2020

Question Of The Day, Foundations of Psychiatric Nursing
Q. A client in an acute care setting tells the nurse, "I don't think I can face going home tomorrow." The nurse replies, "Do you want to talk more about it?" The nurse is using which technique?

A. Presenting reality
B. Making observations
C. Restating
D. Exploring


Correct Answer: D

Reason: The nurse is using the technique of exploring because she's willing to delve further into the client's concern. She isn't presenting reality or making observations or simply restating. The nurse is encouraging the client to explore his feelings.

Friday, 19 June 2020

Q. A nurse is about to conduct a sexual history for a 16-year-old female who is accompanied by her mother. What is an appropriate question for the nurse to ask this client or her mother?

A. "What do you think about having your mother leave the room now?"
B. "Mother, do you think your daughter is sexually active?"
C. "Mother, I am going to ask you to wait a few minutes in the waiting room now so I can complete the health history with your daughter."
D. "The two of you seem like you share everything. I am going to ask questions about sexual history now."

Correct Answer: C

Reason: Confidentiality and privacy are critical developmental needs for the adolescent. These needs are important to enable the nurse to establish a relationship of trust with the adolescent. A sexual history should be conducted with a teen without parents. Therefore, the nurse should not ask the mother to provide information or put the daughter in a position of having to make a decision about her mother remaining in the room. Inform the adolescent that this information is confidential, and will not be shared with the parent. Inform the adolescent that issues of abuse or life-threatening issues are required by law to be disclosed to the authorities, and all other information is private.

Thursday, 18 June 2020

Question Of The Day, School-age Child
Q. A parent asks the nurse about head lice (pediculosis capitis) infestation during a visit to the clinic. Which of the following symptoms should the nurse tell the parent is most common in a child infected with head lice?

A. Itching of the scalp.
B. Scaling of the scalp.
C. Serous weeping on the scalp surface.
D. Pinpoint hemorrhagic spots on the scalp surface.

Correct Answer: A

Reason: The most common characteristic of head lice infestation (pediculosis capitis) is severe itching. The head is the most common site of lice infestation. If the child scratches, scaling may occur. Itching also occurs when lice infest other parts of the body. Scratch marks are almost always found when lice are present. Weeping on the scalp surface may be an indication of an infection or other dermatologic condition. Hemorrhagic spots are not a symptom of head lice, but may be caused by scratch marks.

Tuesday, 16 June 2020

Q. After teaching the parents of an 18-month-old who was treated for a foreign body obstruction about the three cardinal signs indicative of choking, the nurse determines that the teaching has been successful when the parents state that a child is choking when he or she cannot speak, turns blue, and does which of the following?

A. Vomits.
B. Gasps.
C. Gags.
D. Collapses.

Correct Answer: D

Reason: The three cardinal signs indicating that a child is truly choking and requires immediate life-saving interventions include inability to speak, blue color (cyanosis), and collapse. Vomiting does not occur while a child is unable to breathe. Once the object is dislodged, however, vomiting may occur. Gasping, a sudden intake of air, indicates that the child is still able to inhale. When a child is choking, air is not being exchanged, so gagging will not occur.

Monday, 15 June 2020

Q. Before placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt for hydrocephalus, an infant is irritable, lethargic, and difficult to feed. To maintain the infant's nutritional status, which of the following actions would be most appropriate?

A. Feeding the infant just before doing any procedures.
B. Giving the infant small, frequent feedings.
C. Feeding the infant in a horizontal position.
D. Scheduling the feedings for every 6 hours.

Correct Answer: B

Reason: An infant with hydrocephalus is difficult to feed because of poor sucking, lethargy, and vomiting, which are associated with increased intracranial pressure. Small, frequent feedings given at times when the infant is relaxed and calm are tolerated best. Feeding an infant before any procedure is inappropriate because the stress of the procedure may lead to vomiting. Ideally, the infant should be held in a slightly vertical position when feeding to prevent backflow of formula into the eustachian tubes and subsequent development of ear infections. Most infants are fed on demand every 3 to 4 hours.

Saturday, 13 June 2020

Q. A nurse is assessing a client's pulse. Which pulse feature should the nurse document?

A. Timing in the cycle
B. Amplitude
C. Pitch
D. Intensity




Correct Answer: B

Reason: The nurse should document the rate, rhythm, and amplitude, such as weak or bounding, of a client's pulse. Pitch, timing, and intensity aren't associated with pulse assessment.

Friday, 12 June 2020

Q. A health care provider orders 0.5 mg of protamine sulfate for a client who is showing signs of bleeding after receiving a 100-unit dose of heparin. The nurse should expect the effects of the protamine sulfate to be noted in which of the following time frames?

A. 5 minutes.
B. 10 minutes.
C. 20 minutes.
D. 30 minutes.

Correct Answer: C

Reason: A dose of 0.5 mg of protamine sulfate reverses a 100-unit dose of heparin within 20 minutes. The nurse should administer protamine sulfate by I.V. push slowly to avoid adverse effects, such as hypotension, dyspnea, bradycardia, and anaphylaxis.

Thursday, 11 June 2020

Q. Before preparing a client for surgery, the nurse assists in developing a teaching plan. What is the primary purpose of preoperative teaching?

A. To determine whether the client is psychologically ready for surgery
B. To express concerns to the client about the surgery
C. To reduce the risk of postoperative complications
D. To explain the risks associated with the surgery and obtain informed consent

Correct Answer: C

Reason: Preoperative teaching helps reduce the risk of postoperative complications by telling the client what to expect and providing a chance for him to practice, before surgery, any required postoperative activities, such as breathing and leg exercises. The physician — not the nurse — is responsible for determining the client's psychological readiness for surgery. It's inappropriate for the nurse to express personal concerns about surgery to a client. The physician should describe alternative treatments and explain the risks to the client when obtaining informed consent.

Wednesday, 10 June 2020

Q. The nurse-manager of a home health facility includes which item in the capital budget?

A. Salaries and benefits for her staff
B. A $1,200 computer upgrade
C. Office supplies
D. Client-education materials costing $300




Correct Answer: B

Reason: Capital budgets generally include items valued at more than $500. Salaries and benefits are part of the personnel budget. Office supplies and client education materials are part of the operating budget.

Tuesday, 9 June 2020

Question Of The Day, Genitourinary Disorders
Q. Of the following findings in the client's history, which would be the least likely to have predisposed the client to renal calculi?

A. Having had several urinary tract infections in the past 2 years.
B. Having taken large doses of vitamin C over the past several years.
C. Drinking less than the recommended amount of milk.
D. Having been on prolonged bed rest after an accident the previous year.

Correct Answer: C

Reason: A high, rather than low, milk intake predisposes to renal calculi formation, owing to the calcium in milk. Recurrent urinary tract infections are implicated in stone formation as certain bacteria promote stone formation. High daily doses of vitamins C are a risk factor because they can increase the citric acid level. Prolonged immobility is a risk factor for renal calculi because it causes calcium to be released into the bloodstream.

Monday, 8 June 2020

Q. Which of the following alert the nurse to possible internal bleeding in a client who has undergone pulmonary lobectomy 2 days ago?

A. Increased blood pressure and decreased pulse and respiratory rates.
B. Sanguineous drainage from the chest tube at a rate of 50 ml/hour during the past 3 hours.
C. Restlessness and shortness of breath.
D. Urine output of 180 ml during the past 3 hours.

Correct Answer: C

Reason: Restlessness indicates cerebral hypoxia due to decreased circulating volume. Shortness of breath occurs because blood collecting in the pleural space faster than suction can remove it prevents the lung from reexpanding. Increased blood pressure and decreased pulse and respiratory rates are classic late signs of increased intracranial pressure. Decreasing blood pressure and increasing pulse and respiratory rates occur with hypovolemic shock. Sanguineous drainage that changes to serosanguineous drainage at a rate less than 100 ml/hour is normal in the early postoperative period. Urine output of 180 ml over the past 3 hours indicates normal kidney perfusion.

Friday, 5 June 2020

Q. A nurse is teaching a client with diabetes mellitus about self-management of his condition. The nurse should instruct the client to administer 1 unit of insulin for every:

A. 10 g of carbohydrates.
B. 15 g of carbohydrates.
C. 20 g of carbohydrates.
D. 25 g of carbohydrates.



Correct Answer: B

Reason: The nurse should instruct the client to administer 1 unit of insulin for every 15 g of carbohydrates.

Thursday, 4 June 2020

Q. A client with pernicious anemia asks why she must take vitamin B12 injections for the rest of her life. Which is the nurse's best response?

A. "The reason for your vitamin deficiency is an inability to absorb the vitamin because the stomach is not producing sufficient acid."
B. "The reason for your vitamin deficiency is an inability to absorb the vitamin because the stomach is not producing sufficient intrinsic factor."
C. "The reason for your vitamin deficiency is an excessive excretion of the vitamin because of kidney dysfunction."
D. "The reason for your vitamin deficiency is an increased requirement for the vitamin because of rapid red blood cell production."

Correct Answer: B

Reason: Most clients with pernicious anemia have deficient production of intrinsic factor in the stomach. Intrinsic factor attaches to the vitamin in the stomach and forms a complex that allows the vitamin to be absorbed in the small intestine. The stomach is producing enough acid, there is not an excessive excretion of the vitamin, and there is not a rapid production of red blood cells in this condition.

Wednesday, 3 June 2020

Q. A nurse is performing a baseline assessment of a client's skin integrity. What is the priority assessment parameter?

A. Family history of pressure ulcers
B. Presence of pressure ulcers on the client
C. Potential areas of pressure ulcer development
D. Overall risk of developing pressure ulcers



Correct Answer: D

Reason: When assessing skin integrity, the overall risk potential of developing pressure ulcers takes priority. Overall risk encompasses existing pressure ulcers as well as potential areas for development of pressure ulcers. Family history isn't important when assessing skin integrity.

Tuesday, 2 June 2020

Q. Prochlorperazine (Compazine) is prescribed postoperatively. The nurse should evaluate the drug's therapeutic effect when the client expresses relief from which of the following?

A. Nausea.
B. Dizziness.
C. Abdominal spasms.
D. Abdominal distention.


Correct Answer: A

Reason: Prochlorperazine is administered postoperatively to control nausea and vomiting. Prochlorperazine is also used in psychotherapy because of its effects on mood and behavior. It is not used to treat dizziness, abdominal spasms, or abdominal distention.

Monday, 1 June 2020

Question Of The Day, Oncologic Disorders
Q. A client received chemotherapy 24 hours ago. Which precautions are necessary when caring for the client?

A. Wear sterile gloves.
B. Place incontinence pads in the regular trash container.
C. Wear personal protective equipment when handling blood, body fluids, and feces.
D. Provide a urinal or bedpan to decrease the likelihood of soiling linens.

Correct Answer: C

Reason: Chemotherapy drugs are present in the waste and body fluids of clients for 48 hours after administration. The nurse should wear personal protective equipment when handling blood, body fluids, or feces. Gloves offer minimal protection against exposure. The nurse should wear a face shield, gown, and gloves when exposure to blood or body fluid is likely. Placing incontinence pads in the regular trash container and providing a urinal or bedpan don't protect the nurse caring for the client.

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